Population and Environmental status of Nepal

Population Distribution by Ecological Region:

  • Lowest population and thinnest population density in the Himalayan region.
  • Highest population in the Terai region.
  • Plainland, fertile soil, better health services, and employment facilities of the Terai region pull people of other regions to it.

Ecosystem and Environment:

  • Interaction between the living and non-living things in the environment.
  • Based on two factors, nutrient cycle and flow of energy.

1. Components of Ecosystem:

  • The ecosystem is formed by the interaction of biotic and abiotic components.
  • Non-living things like air, water, soil are abiotic components.
  • Living organisms like human beings, plants, animals, etc, are biotic components.
  • The diversity of ecosystems in Nepal is contributed by diverse topography and climatic condition.

2. Aspects of Ecosystem:

  • The physical aspect, biological Aspect, Environmental aspect, and socio-economic aspect.
  • Physical Aspect includes biotic components.
  • Physical Aspect includes biotic components.
  • Environmental Aspect includes the environmental features.
  • The socio-economic aspect includes social and economic activities.

Ecosystem of Different geographical regions of Nepal:

1. Himalayan Region:

  • Snow-capped mountains and cold climate.
  • Ranges from 4878 to 8848 meters above sea level.
  • Occupies 35% of the total area of the country.

a. Physical Aspects:

  • Includes climate, water bodies, topography, temperature, and other abiotic components.
  •  The cold climate and less annual rainfall.
  • 8 among 14 mountains above 8000 meters are found in Nepal.
  • Occupies 35% of the total area of Nepal.

b. Biological Aspects:

  • Includes vegetation, animal, birds, and other biotic components.
  • Rich in biodiversity and valuable herbs like Yarsagumba, Jatamasi, Pachaune, etc/
  • Low production and grown crops are barley, maize, wheat, potato, etc.
  • Snow leopard, Blue sheep, wild boar, Lophophorus are found.

c. Socio-economic Aspects:

  • 6.73% of the total population resides.
  • Lowest population density
  • Unfavorable agriculture due to low fertility
  • Sherpas, Thakali, Lhomi, Mugali, Ghale, etc are the major castes.
  • Gosaikunda, Muktinath, etc lies in this region.

2. Hilly Region:

  • Situated between 611 metros to 4877 metros above sea level and occupies 42%area of Nepal.
  • Landforms are plateaus, steep hills, deep gorges, etc.
  • Mid-hilly areas hold 52 ecosystems.

a. Physical Aspects:

  • Occupies 42% area of Nepal.
  • Many valleys, basins, peaks, plateaus, and gorges
  • Favorite climate neither very hot nor very cold.

b. Biological Aspects:

  • Rich in biodiversity as three sub-geographic regions have diversity among themselves.
  • Trees like chicane, khasru, kaoro, etc can be found, crops like rich, maize, oilseed, sugarcane, etc can be grown; animals and birds like leopards, tiger, sparrow, pheasant, etc can be found.

c. Socio-economic Aspects:

  • 43% of the total population resides.
  • Brahman, Chhetri, Magar, Gurung, Rai, Limbu, Newar are the major inhabitants.
  • Festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Vbauli, Budhha Jayanti, Lhosar, etc are celebrated.
  • Religious places like Pashupatinath, Swagambhunath Halesimahadev, Palanchowk Bhagwati, etc are located.
  • Agriculture, trade, tourism, and service are major occupations.

3. Terai Region:

  • Situated 58 meters to 600 meters above sea level, occupies 23% area of Nepal.
  • Highest population density, fertile land, huge diversity in flora and fauna.

a. Physical Aspects:

  • Lies at a lower altitude from sea level, a plain extension of the land.
  • Fertile land, Transport, and other facilities found and adequately.

b. Biological Aspects:

  • Rich in biodiversity with evergreen forest.
  • Trees like Sal, Sishan, Khayar, papal, Chilaune, etc are of und.
  • Animals and birds like Tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, dove, pigeon, crow, giant hornbill, etc are found.
  • Crops like, rich, moiré, wheat, sugarcane is grown.

c. Socio-economic Aspects:

  • 50.27% of the total population resides.
  • Agriculture, industry, trade, service, and tourism are major occupations.
  • Tharu, Rajput, Rajbansi, Danuwar, Majhi, Dhimal, etc are the major casts.
  • Festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Chhat, Id, Holi, Etc are celebrated.
  • Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christian, Kirat, and Sikh are major religions followed.

Effects on Ecosystem and Mitigating Measures:

Development activities, pollution, solid waste, deforestation, climate change, overhunting, etc. affect ecosystem/affects Ecosystem.

1. Effects on Ecosystem of Himalayan Region and mitigate measures:

a. Deforestation:

  • Major effects on the ecosystem.
  • Afforestation, on, use of alternative fuel sources, public awareness, etc are mitigating measures.

b. Effect on Livestock farming:

  • Overgrazing curses the destruction of valuable herbs and plants.
  • Stop grazing in a single place over and over again, create public awareness.

c. Soil erosion and misuses of lands:

  • Barren land, Haphazard use of hazardous fertilizers, growing similar crops in the same field.
  • Cultivation on barren land, Rotation of crops, stopping the use of hazardous pesticides, and fertilizers are mitigating measures.

2. Effects on Ecosystem of Hilly region and mitigating measures:

a. Deforestation:

  • The collection of firewood, construction of houses, overgrazing causes deforestation.
  • Afforestation programmes, use of alternative fuel/sources are mitigating measures.

b. Depletion of Quality of Land:

  • The use of harmful chemical pesticides, the same crops for a long time causes depletion.
  • Use of compost and other organic manure restore quality.

c. Developmental Activities:

  • Causes loss of habitat of animals and birds, pollution, solid waste, etc.
  • Proper planning and proper management required.

3. Effects on Ecosystem of Terai Region and Mitigating Measures:

a. Deforestation:

  • Affects the ecosystem forest and surrounding.
  • Public awareness, Afforestation programme required.

b. Depletion of Quality Land:

  • Using harmful chemicals, overexploitation, etc causes depletion of land quality.
  • Treatments of soil, reducing chemical fertilizers use, etc preserve the quality of the land.

Major steps for the conservation of the environment:

a. Conservation of Forest:

  • Afforestation programmes, public awareness, the formation of the community forest, etc. should be conduct.

b. Conservation of Land:

  • Tree plantation, terrace farming, conservation of pasture land, use of organic fertilizers, etc. preserve the quality of the land.

c. Solid Waste Management:

  • Burial, sanitary fills, incineration, and composting manage biodegradable wastes.
  • 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) controls biodegradable wart.

d. Control of Pollution:

  • Proper disposal of solid wastes, controlling the emission of harmful gases from industries and automobiles, reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers, etc

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